The British Medical Journal recently featured a strong response to what was judged an inappropriately lenient reaction by a medical school to a student cheating in an examination. Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.
There is general agreement that there should be zero tolerance of cheating in a profession based on trust and one on which human lives depend. It is reasonable to assume that cheaters in medical school will be more likely than others to continue to act dishonestly with patients, colleagues, insurers, and government.
The behaviours under question are multifactorial in origin. There are familial, religious, and cultural values that are acquired long before medical school. For example, countries, cultures, and subcultures exist where bribes and dishonest behaviour are almost a norm. There are secondary schools in which neither staff nor students tolerate cheating and others where cheating is rampant; there are homes which imbue young people with high standards of ethical behaviour and others which leave ethical training to the harmful influence of television and the market place.
Medical schools reflect society and cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society. The selection proce
ss of medical students might be expected to favour candidates with integrity and positive ethical behaviour—if one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance. Medical schools should be the major focus of attention for imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivity. Unfortunately there are troubling, if inconclusive, data that suggest that during medical school the ethical behaviour of medical students does not necessarily improve; indeed, moral development may actually stop or even regress.
The creation of a pervasive institutional culture of integrity is essential. It is critical that the academic and clinical leaders of the institution set a personal example of integrity. Medical schools must make their institutional position and their expectations of students absolutely clear from day one. The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing. Moreover, the school's examination system and general treatment of students must be perceived as fair. Finally, the treatment of infractions must be firm, fair, transparent, and consistent.
6. What does the author say about cheating in medical schools?
[A] Extensive research has been done about this phenomenon.
[B] We have sufficient data to prove that prevention is feasible.
[C] We are safe to conclude that this phenomenon exists on a grand scale.
[D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking.
7. According to the author, it is important to prevent cheating in medical schools because ____________.
[A] The medical profession is based on trust.
[B] There is zero tolerance of cheating in medicine.
[C] The medical profession depends on the government.
[D] Cheating exists extensively in medical schools.
8. What does the author say about the cause(s) of cheating?
[A] Family, culture and society play an active part.
[B] Bad school environment is the leading cause of student cheating.
[C] Parents are always to blame for their children’s cheating behaviour.
[D] Cheating exists primarily because students learn bad things from TV.
9. According to the author, what precautio(转载自中国教育文摘http://www.edUzhai.net，请保留此标记。)ns should medical schools take to prevent students from cheating?
[A] Medical schools should establish a firm moral standard to weed out applicants with low integrity.
[B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society.
[C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values.
[D] There is nothing medical schools can do to improve the ethical behaviour of their students.
10. The author will probably agree with which of the following statements?
[A] Medical schools should make exams easier for the students to alleviate the fierce competition.
[B] Prominent figures in the medical institution should create a set of moral standards to be applied in medical schools.
[C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity.
[D] Those students who cheat in the exams should be instantly expelled from school.
6. 答案是[D] Reliable data about the extent, prevention and management of the phenomenon is lacking.
解析：文章第一段说，Although we have insufficient reliable data about the extent of this phenomenon, its prevention, or its effective management, much can be concluded and acted upon on the basis of common sense and concepts with face validity.可见，到目前为止，我们还不很了解医学院作弊现象的严重程度，也不甚明了如何对该类现象进行预防和管理。既然目前所掌握的DATA是insufficient(不充足的)，那么[A][B][C]所说的都不符合文章的原意，故均为错误选项。只有[D]的叙述正确。
7. 答案是[A] The medical profession is based on trust.
8. 答案是[A] Family, culture and society play an active part.
9. 答案是[C] Medical schools should teach future doctors integrity and ethical values.
解析：[A]“医学院应该确立明确道德标准，淘汰道德素质低下的申请者”是错误选项。因为文章谈到如何甄别申请医学院学生的道德素质的时候，作者用的是虚拟语气have的过去式had(if one had a reliable method for detecting such characteristics in advance)：如果能有可靠的标准，能预先了解学生的道德水平，医学院在录取的时候应该照顾那些恪守道德准则的学生。可见目前并没有这样的标准可循。[B] Medical schools should make efforts to remedy the ills of a society.和文章的内容相反。因为文章明确地说Medical schools...cannot be expected to remedy all the ills of a society.[C]项错，因为文章的本意是，医学院的学生在学期间，道德素质不仅不会提高，而且可能下降(regress)。但是作者并没有说，医学院在提高学生素质方面无计可施，而是敦促学校采取相应措施，imbuing future doctors with integrity and ethical sensitivity，(增强未来的医师们的道德感)。
10. 答案是[C] Medical students should play an active role in the creation and preservation of a culture of integrity.
解析：[C]项和文章最后一段的The development of a school's culture of integrity requires a partnership with the students in which they play an active role in its creation and nurturing相呼应。[A]错，因为作者没有建议医(转载自中国教育文摘http://www.edUzhai.net，请保留此标记。)学院应该降低考试难度。[B]的叙述不准确，因为作者的本意是医学界的要人应该树立楷模，而不是让他们设定一套人人遵循的行规。[D]错，作者仅提议医学院对有违反道德准则学生的处罚应该是坚决，公正，透明和统一的。作者并没有明确倡议一旦有作弊行为就将其开除出校。